8.3.6 La negazione nel present perfect

La negazione nel present perfect segue la regola generale. Se c' è un verbo modale o un ausiliare, è questo che deve essere negato.


  esempi    
  I have already baked the cake. I have not (haven't) baked the cake.
Have you ever been to London? Haven't you ever been to London?
= Have you not ever (= never) been to London?
  She has worked here for 20 years. She has not (hasn't) worked here for 20 years.
  We have just opened a bottle of wine. We have not (haven't) just opened a bottle of wine.
  Have you seen Alex lately? Have you not seen Alex lately?
= Haven't you seen Alex lately?
  He has worked a lot recently. He has not (hasn't) worked a lot recently.
  She has lived here since 1980. She has not (hasn't) lived here since 1980.


Nel caso ci siano un verbo modale e un verbo ausiliare, si realizza la negazione con il verbo modale.

esempio    
  I have already baked the cake. I cannot (can't) have baked the cake.
  She has worked here for 20 years. She may not have worked here for 20 years.
  We have just opened a bottle of wine. We must not (mustn't) have just opened a bottle of wine.
  He has worked a lot recently. He didn't need to have worked a lot recently.
  She has lived here since 1980. She has not (hasn't) to have lived here since 1980.





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